E-business Glossary I-Z

iSkiv E-business Glossary is an English-French Glossary. It permanently evolves to adapt to ever changing use of words. Below, the letters i to Z. You will find the term, a definition or a explanation, and the translation of the term in French. All links below open in a second window.

I - J - K

Image Map

An image map is an image divided in regions; each one may be linked individually in order to access a distinct Web page. This permits to have one image only to load, that is one http call instead of multiple calls. Today (2017) less used than it was formerly, as other techniques such as sprites*, now exist that might be useful in similar circumstances.
French: Image Mapée.

Intangibles

Intangible, the adjective, stands at the opposite of material, corporeal, physical. It first known use dates back to 1640 in French medieval Latin with Intangibilis. Intangibles, the noun, generally used in plural means elements that are not palpable. We cannot touch them. Beyond this, the semantic fields of Intangibles carry a number of meanings that relate to their production or value. As an example, when we say "selling solutions for intangibles", we refer to music and more generally art, services, expertise, events... This term is mainly used in the accounting and financial area, which we consider unfortunate as it restrains its meaning.
French: Adj. Intangible; Noun Immatériels.

Note for French readers: La rubrique lexicographie du dictionnaire TLFI, consultable sur le site du CNRTL reconnaît l'usage du terme Immatériel comme substantif mais non pas celui du terme Intangible.

Intangible assets

Intangible assets typically targets the organisation's knowledge, experience, know-how and goodwill. Investopedia dictionary cites only "Corporate intellectual property, including items such as patents, trademarks, copyrights and business methodologies... goodwill and brand recognition". Information owned (in any form), expertise, technical assets, relational assets (which might be part of the goodwill), human resources, etc. carry as well the value of the organisation.
French: Actifs immatériels.

Internet

The worldwide network of computer networks, that talk to each other through a number of common protocols. Of course, today the use of the word Internet is wider than that definition.
French: Internet.

Internet address, IP address

The Internet address, corresponding to an IP address, is a code, that identify a particular computer on the Intetnet network. Much like a street address identifies a home. As codes are more difficult to memorize, and also some IP address correspond to more than one domain name, we normally use the domain name, that is in the form "your-name.com", for instance, to access a Web site. There are two distinct protocols IPV4 and IPV6.
French: Adresse Internet (Adresse IP).

Interoperability

Interoperability means the ability of applications to work together. So the work targets cooperation between applications.
French: Interopérabilité.

Intranet

Internal organisation's network, usually meant to refer to serving web pages in the framework of a private network.
French: Intranet.

JavaScript

A scripting language used mainly to create dynamic, interactive web pages. For example, web developers can use JavaScript to validate form input, create animations and to open pop-up windows.
French: JavaScript.

JPEG

JPEG, the second most used format for Web usage, stands for Joint Photographic Experts Group. JPEG is a compressed format standard for fixed images.
French: JPEG.

Key Performance Indicator

Key Performance indicators are frequently referred to as KPI. They typically serve for following up and measuring the level of success of an organisation in a given project, campaign, field or activity. Performance indicators relate to the goals set. To enter deeper into the matter, see Optimisation Targets and KPI by i.S.k.i.v. Ltd.
French: Indicateurs de performance clés (IPC) or KPI.

L - M

Lead

The term lead targets a contact with a prospect or the details enabling this contact to take place. It might be a direct contact resulting from a visit to a show or a sale place, or resulting from a request for quote, a call, a website visit, a network, etc. Lead mainly related to BtoB marketing.
French: Lead or contact commercial.

Listing

A listing is a list with multiple entries. Within the frame of e-business, Such entries might be physical addresses, as well as email addresses or telephone numbers, with or without people's name and function.
French: Listing.

Load balancing

Load balancing is the name given to a method for improving the distribution of workloads across multiple computing resources.
French: Équiliber la charge

Logistic chain

The logistic chain includes the steps relating to a logistic process in a commercial or industrial environment.
French: Chaîne logistique.

Logs

Web servers normally record server access, server errors, or various system occurrences and data. These records are called logs.
French: Journaux.

Logging

For IT and web, Logging targets the systematic recording of actions, visits or events.
French: Journalisation.

Meta data

The expression Meta data refers to a wide concept of information about information. This strategy is used, for instance, for instructing Internet search engines and their search robots. In a web environment, Meta data primarily relate to passing information on the content of a web page or a web file.
French: Méta données.

Miva Script language

Miva script language was born under the name of htmlscript. Initially promoted by Miva Merchant and Softquad, Miva Script is (2017) owned and maintained by Miva Merchant inc. Though freely accessible, Miva script is not open source. A features of Miva Script is the native support for a variation of dBase database platform (DBF III) tables with a proprietary index format and support for SQL. It is today a compiled language and offers quite a good security.
French: Miva Script.

Multimedia

The Merriam Webster defines multimedia as "using, involving, or encompassing several media". Multimedia refers in particular to applications using fixed or animated images, sound, text and frequently databases. Sometimes used to refer to a given media (CD-ROM for instance).
French: Multimédia.

N - O

Navigation

The navigation concept covers the whole means set up for circulating from one Web page to another one, within the same Web site. This circulation is enabled by hypertext links. Those links may surround text or image. The navigation includes the logical architecture, which is perceived by the visitor as the Web site organization.
French: Navigation.

Network

The term Network has a wide use in the IT, web and e-business area: from computers interconnected together to enable communication and resource sharing to interconnected system of e-Business components or communication system consisting of a group of Web sites.
French: Réseau.

Newsgroup

Newsgroup refers to virtual meetings. The participants who subscribe can post messages, answer posted messages or search the archive to retrieve past messages posted. At the difference of the fora, the news exchanged in a newsgroup require a news reader.
French: Groupes de discussion

On-line shop

On-line shop, or virtual shop, or e-shop, or even shopping cart all refer to the means, programs, databases and web pages used to sell on-line, to consumers or to businesses, from a web site.
French: Boutique virtuelle or boutique en ligne or magasin virtuel.

P

Parked domain

A parked domain refers to a domain name that is already registered but is not associated with a website. There are multiple reasons for registering a domain that is intended to be parked, for example: registering multiple extensions of your own domain name to avoid that competitors do it. Registering typos of well known domain names to earn money by including advertising links or redirecting an advertising links page.
French: Domaine parqué.

PDF

Stands for "Portable Document Format." PDF is a multi-platform file format used to present documents in a manner independent of application software, as the PDF file encapsulates a description of a fixed-layout flat document, It includes text, fonts, graphics, and other information to display it. The format was developed by Adobe. However, other development teams took advantage to saving in this format, Open Office in particular, which is capable of saving the lightest pdf files.
French: PDF.

Perl

Perl stands for "Practical Extraction and Report Language" Perl is a scripting language which syntax has similarities with C/C++. A great language that was widely used by Web programmers and today (2017) less. As Perl has specific abilities to parse text, it offers an extremely useful tool for scanning text files and searching through them.
French: Perl.

Permalink

Permalink means a link to a news story or blog post. For more details, please refer to the excellent and detailed definition given by Definition from The Tech Terms Dictionary.
French: Permalien.

Phishing

Sending an e-mail to a user and falsely claiming a legitimate one in an attempt to scam the user into divulging private or company information that will be used for a theft (of identity, of data, etc.).
French: Hameçonnage or phishing.

PHP

PHP or Hypertext Preprocessor, is an open source, server-side scripting language for the web, which embedds into HTML language, as needed. The main use of PHP is to create dynamic websites or applications. Well supported, and easy to learn, PHP use has taken an extraordinary extension.
French: PHP.

Podcasting

Involves making an audio file of content that is updated frequently and available for automatic download, allowing users to listen to the file at their convenience.
French: Podcasting. The Office québécois de la langue française translated the term in 2009 into Baladodiffusion.

Popup window

A popup window opens without the visitor requesting a new window. Such popup windows are generated by websites for multiple reasons, advertisements, fast information, extra information without modification of the main page layout, etc.
French:Popup. The Office québécois de la langue française translated it in "Fenêtre surgissante".

Protocol

While the term protocol has a wider meaning, in the computer world it refers to communication between computers. It covers a set of rules and instructions that each computer follows. Fir example, in the Internet area, HTTP for "Hypertext Transfer Protocol" or its secure version HTTPS, FTP, TCP/IP, etc.
French: Protocole.

Q - R

Quad Core CPU

Quad-core CPUs refers to a computer chip that has four cores inside of it, instead of one or two. By including multiple cores in a single CPU, chip manufacturers intent to generate higher performance. This is of course under the assumption that that operating system, server software and programs provide support for multiprocessing and so can take advantage of multi-core processing.
French: processeur quadricoeur.

Robots (see Bots)

RSS format

RSS Stands for "Rich Site Summary" and is commonly referred to as "Really Simple Syndication." RSS is a web feed method to publish updated website content in a standard XML format. Websites can provide updates and news stories to various RSS directories that distribute them over the Internet.
French: Format RSS

S

Scenario

A scenario or use case, within the frame of e-Business, means a developed synopsis of actions or processes, covering a situation of use. A use case scenario helps consider and test the processes when designing a user interface, be it for the front-end or the back-end of a website.
French: Scénario or Cas.

Script

Within the frame of the web, script means a program, a set of instructions written in a programming language, which executes directly in the browser, or a server program which executes to send data to a browser, sending the results in HTML language.
French: Script.

Search engine

In the Internet world, a search engine refers to the indexing system that enable the summarisation of web sites or web page in an index displaying results following a user search. A Web site will be found if indexed and if the words used for indexing are searched by Internet users.
Freench: Moteur de recherche.

Secured transaction

Commonly, the expression secure transaction refers to the use of SSL (Secure socket Layer) and the HTTPS protocol to ensure the confidentiality of the data transferred. When a visitor leave its address or even more confidential information filling a form on a web site, the data are then ciphered and sent more securely across the Internet network. The most common protocols being SSL and HTTPS, developed by Netscape Communications Corporation for secure data transmission in commercial transactions.
French: Transaction sécurisée.

Security Certificates

A security certificate is an ambiguous expression that has no true definition as such in the web arena. There are two types of certificates that correspond to a known definition: 1) Public key certificate or digital or identity certificate that relate to cryptography. In a typical public-key infrastructure (PKI) scheme, the signer is a certificate authority (CA), that charges customers to issue certificates for them. 2) SSL Certificate SSL* stands for Secure Sockets Layer, as explains the well-known authority Verisigh, it is "a global standard security technology that enables encrypted communication between a web browser and a web server. SSL allows for a private “conversation” just between the two intended parties." There are various types of SSL certificates.
French: Certificats SSL or Certificats répondant au protocole SSL

Semantic Web

The W3C (World Wide Web Consortium) defines the Semantic Web as providing "a common framework that allows data to be shared and reused across application, enterprise, and community boundaries. It is a collaborative effort led by W3C with participation from a large number of researchers and industrial partners. It is based on the Resource Description Framework (RDF). In February 2004, The World Wide Web Consortium released the Resource Description Framework (RDF) and the OWL Web Ontology Language (OWL) as W3C Recommendations." Well, to make it short, we could say that the Semantic web activity intends to enable a more meaningful access to data, links between data and data sharing, from the application's angle.
Frnch: Web sémantique.

SET

SET (Secured Electronic Transaction) is a newer standard than SSL for credit card transaction payment on open networks, developed by the VISA and MasterCard consortium, that was joined by American Express, JCB Ltd, IBM. SET uses SHHTP and is expected to expand in 2005. The SET specification can be found at http://www.setco.org/
French: SET.

Shared resources

Data, knowledge resources, and services shared by individuals or organisations from distant computers.
French: Ressources partagées.

Shopping cart

Shopping cart refers to online store's catalogue and ordering process. Typically, a shopping cart is the interface between a website's shop, its back-end infrastructure, and front-end, which allos consumers to select goods, review what they have selected, make necessary modifications or additions, purchase and pay.
French: Carte marchande, or panier.

SSL

SSL stands for Secure Socket Layer, it refers to the protocol developed by Netscape Communications Corporation for the secure transmission of Internet transactions. SSL uses a public cipher key to provide identification and encrypted data to the server and ensures the integrity of the client/server data communications.
French: Protocole de sécurité SSL.

Structured information

The concept of structured information targets the information content: retrieving and using information, of any kind, implies to consider data, of any kind, both as physical data, with a specific format and a particular organisation, and as single elements having a role and a function. Structuring information makes it possible to manage complex situations. eBusiness uses structured information.
French: Information structurée

Supply Chain

The supply chain concept, in the Internet world, refers to managed operations at every stage of a virtual supply chain. In the whole virtual supply chain, each customer is potentially the provider his own clients.
French: Chaîne d'approvisionnement virtuelle.

T - U

URL (Uniform Resource Locator), see Address

Usability

From a User angle, the quality of a webite, a software or an application may be defined in terms of usability. Easy navigation and usable contents are among the criteria that account. French: Sometimes translated in Convivialité, Usability has more affinity with Valeur d'usage.

Use case, see Scenario

User

The visitors of a Web site are commonly called users. Though the Internet network is public and open to everybody, the business efficiency of a Web site is mainly related to the correct definition of the targeted users, those for which the Web site has been created and with which the owner organization tries to establish a dialogue.
French: Utilisateur

User needs analysis

The concept of user needs analysis refers to the website's user, and covers the following tasks: identify the various users; acquire the necessary knowledge on the user's expectations, in terms of information, products, services; understand the behaviour of the users and their interactions with the website content.
French: Analyse des besoins des utilisateurs (d'un site Web).

V - W

Value-added information

Value-added information refers both to the information producer and to its user: 1. Information processed in order to get it more meaningful and adequate for direct exploitation. 2. Information build from more than one layer, for instance commented, by opposition to primary information; 3. Less information in quantity, more meaning. 4. A better refined information. For the user, value-added information means more usable and more useful information.
French: Information à valeur ajoutée.

Value-added service

Telecommunication service implying the provision of integrated services to a subscriber, for instance protocol conversion, messaging, databases, application management.
French: Service à valeur ajoutée.

Virtual enterprise

Though more than one definition co-exists, virtual enterprise is used for a group, built from more than one team and / or more than one distant organisations or individuals, co-operating through information and communication technology.
French: Entreprise virtuelle.

VPN

VPN stands for Virtual Private Network. Often used by companies to create WANs (Wide Area Networks) that cover large geographic areas. VPNs let IP packets travel securely over a public IP network by encrypting all traffic from one network to another. Various systems and protocols exist. Roughly said, a VPN set up a private network within a public network such as the Internet.
French: Réseau privé virtuel.

Web

The word Web (or World Wide Web) involves: 1. the concept of collection of resources (the web pages) that can be accessed with the help of a web browser, through hypertext links or hyperlinks* 2. and the concept of a set of protocols enabling the transmission of web pages through the Internet network, the World Wide Web, best known as www.
French: Web.

Web host

A Web host consists refers to the provision of server space, web services and file maintenance for websites owned by individuals or organisations that do not have their own web servers. French: Hébergeur

Website Architecture

As regards a website, the word architecture targets both the physical structure of the directories, of the programs and web pages, and the logical structure of the website, web information and web services provided.
French: Architecture d'un site web.

See also Data Architecture and Information Architecture

Web Application

Web applications or web apps consist of software developed for the web that integrates with a website or support it, add functionalities or enable a particular feature.
French: Application web.

Web Page

A Web page is a document created with the HTML language. It is supported by a file, which extension is usually .htm or .html. A collection of Web pages linked together by hyperlinks form a website as soon as they are hosted by a web server.
French: Page web

Website

The term website is today quite obvious: a collection of web pages or web applications form what's called a website that you can display through a web browser, navigating from page to page through hyperlinks*. A website is accessible through the public Internet network. It may exist as well on a private network as part of an intranet*.
French: Site Internet or Site web.

X - Y - Z

XML

XML, eXtansible Markup Language, is a World Wide Web Consortium specification for data sharing, application sharing, meta structures, structured information.
French: XML.

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Glossary Letters I-Z

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